Value can be added to projects for restoring the aesthetic appeal of modified water ways at very little extra cost if the needs of living components of the system are taken into account. This manual provides the rationale, guidelines and techniques for the rehabilitation of rivers for fish. It is intended for the use of fisheries managers, fisheries and wildlife biologists, land and water use planners, and civil engineers working on projects involving protection and rehabilitation of inland running waters. While the primary orientation of the manual is towards rivers of the temperate zone, the techniques described can be applied to the restoration of rivers of similar dimensions in other climatic areas. The European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission was established in 1957 to advise European countries on matters pertaining to inland water fisheries and aquaculture. The Commission established a Working Party on the Effects of Physical Modification of Aquatic Habitats on Fish Populations in 1990. The Working Party, at its first meeting in Lyon, France, recommended the preparation of a manual on techniques for rehabilitation of rivers for fish which eventually led to the existing publication. Although many people have contributed to the work the main editorial effort was carried out by the following two individuals.