Jatropa is an underutilized, oil-bearing crop. It produces a seed that can be processed into non-polluting biodiesel, and grows under drought condition. This publication presents a compilation of information on key practical issues affecting jatropha for pro-poor development, based on the knowledge available from research reports and ongoing unpublished research material. This document provides a brief overview of biofuels, their growth drivers and their potential impacts on poor societies. The information is provided to increase knowledge of jatropha throughout subtropical and tropical areas. It will also contribute to strengthening policies and strategies that recognize the potential of jatropha with regard to pro-poor development, sustainable rural income and improved livelihoods in developing countries. This publication will interest a wide range of readers including government and institutional policy- and decision-makers, international and multilateral development organizations, donors, NGOs, the private sector and foundations as well as researchers, advisors, teachers and professionals in agriculture.