Fisheries resources and coastal and marine environments in the Mediterranean are threatened by overexploitation, pollution and the impact of a wide range of activities. All Mediterranean countries share these problems and their solution necessarily implies a common response that takes into account the inherent particularities related to geomorphological, ecological, socio-economical and cultural aspects of each country. The contents of the publication here presented have been selected with the aim of reviewing key issues of the sector and were prepared and presented as a reference work for the VII Meeting of the Ministers of Agriculture and Fisheries of CIHEAM member countries held at Zaragoza (Spain) on 4th February 2008. This issue of Options Méditerranéennes published by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Zaragoza (CIHEAM-IAMZ) with the collaboration of the General Fisheries Commission of the Mediterranean (GFCM) and the Fisheries and Aquaculture Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has counted on the active contribution of key experts, who have been involved in activities organized by these institutions for many years. The work starts with a review of facts and figures, an analysis of the seafood market trends in Europe, followed by a review of the state of fishery resources. Some management-related issues are addressed, including the ecosystem approach to fisheries management in the Mediterranean, the use of trawling nets, recreational fisheries, and marine protected areas for fisheries in the Mediterranean. Two main aquaculture topics are also dealt with: sustainable development of Mediterranean aquaculture, and assessment of seabream and seabass markets. Finally, regional cooperation in the Mediterranean is discussed. This publication also includes the final declarations of the meeting, as well as the speeches delivered by Commissioner Joe Borg, Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of the European Commission, and Mr Alain Bonzon, Secretary of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM).