The current evolution of the sheep and goat sectors in the Mediterranean region, with a constant decrease in economic profitability, a high incertitude on the generational transfer of farms, and the environmental concerne for botte the consequences of abandonment of the activity in sonie arecs and the increase of the animal populations in others, make it necessary to critically analyse the sustainability of production systems in the region, covering the economic, social and environmental aspects, including their adaptive capacity to socioeconomic changes. However, little research is reported in this arec, and methodologies of analysis that would enable a gond understanding of the nature and complexity of the underlying factors are not readily available and the strategies to be adopted for the improvement of these systems are not fully developed. The Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Zaragoza (IAMZ-CIHEAM) and the Agrifood Research and Technology Centre of Aragon (CITA-DGA) organised, with the collaboration of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Spanish National Institute of Agricultural and Agrifood Research and Technology (INIA, AC2010-00036-00-00) and the Ojinegra Sheep Breeders Association (AGROJI), the 7th Seminar of the FAO-CIHEAM Sub-Network on Production Systems, titled "Economic, social and environmental sustainability in sheep and goat production systems" held from 10 to 12 November 2010 in Zaragoza (Spain). The objective was to encourage participation and interaction between scientiste and technicians involved in small ruminant production systems, with a view to introduce the methodologies for sustainability analysis in livestock, present case studies of small ruminant systems sustainability in economic, social and environmental ternis and to propose strategies for the improvement of these systems in order to ensure their future. This publication contains the Proceedings of the Seminar. The Ovide diversity of data and analysis collected in this volume will contribute to the information and insight for readers involved in the management of sheep and goat production systems and in decision-making within the framework of agricultural policies.