This book targets professors and university students interested in environmental assessment (EA), and particularly in environmental impact assessment (EIA), as well as all actors involved in the environmental scene including practitioners, members of non-governmental organizations, decision makers and citizens who wish to know more about managing their environment more effectively. Multiple environmental problems afflict our contemporary world and have been the subject of discussions during many international meetings. All declarations resulting from these meetings insist on including environmental problems and on EA as an important tool to achieve this. This book aims to reach three objectives. First, it introduces EA to people from different disciplines, and therefore it opens up the perspective of new disciplinary horizons. Second, the authors discuss EA as a socio-political process rather than emphasizing methodologies. Third, this book draws mainly on the experience in Francophone countries which is still poorly disseminated.