Biological diversity is the variety of life on Earth, from the simplest micro-organisms to complex ecosystems such as the rainforests of the Amazon. Biodiversity is important for nutrition and health, and can help to combat micronutrient deficiencies and other forms of malnutrition. Nutrition indicators need to be developed to address the three dimensions of biodiversity - ecosystems, the species they contain and the genetic diversity within species. The indicators will measure the food composition and consumption of cultivars, varieties, breeds and subspecies of commonly consumed foods. This first booklet on nutrition indicator for biodiversity is related to food composition. It reports on progress regarding food composition for biodiversity and will help us value and preserve our planet's existing biodiversity within well-managed ecosystems, with their many sources of nutritionally-rich foods.