Enterobacter sakazakii and Salmonella are the primary pathogens of concern with regard to powdered infant formula. Guidance for the control of these hazards is currently being developed by Codex Alimentarius through the revision of the Recommended International Code of Hygienic Practices for Foods for Infants and Children. FAO and WHO are providing the scientific advice to facilitate this work. FAO and WHO implemented the first meeting on this issue in 2004, the outcome of which is reported in number six of this series. This report builds on the information and advice provided in 2004. Following the analysis of new and additional information and the development of a more extensive risk assessment on E. sakazakii in powdered infant formula, this volume aims to provide the most up-to-date information on these microorganisms, the risk associated with their presence in powdered infant formula and scientific advice to facilitate the management of that risk (Co-published with WHO).