The annual Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues was held in Rome, Italy, from 3 to 12 October 2006. The FAO Panel of Experts had met in Preparatory Sessions from 28 September to 2 October. The meeting was held in pursuance of recommendations made by previous meetings and accepted by the governing bodies of FAO and WHO that studies should be undertaken jointly by experts to evaluate possible hazards to humans arising from the occurrence of pesticide residues in foods. During the meeting, the FAO Panel of Experts was responsible for reviewing pesticide use patterns (good agricultural practices), data on the chemistry and composition of the pesticides and methods of analysis for pesticide residues and for estimating the maximum residue levels that might occur as a result of the use of the pesticides according to good agricultural practices. The WHO Core Assessment Group was responsible for reviewing toxicological and related data and for estimating, where possible, acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) of the pesticides for humans. This report in two volumes contains information on ADIs, maximum residue levels and general principles for the evaluation of pesticides. The recommendations of the joint meeting, including further research and information, are proposed for use by Member Governments of the respective agencies and other interested parties.