In West and Central Asia, governments, the private sector, communities, farmers and civil society organizations are making substantial efforts to improve the management of forest and tree resources. However, most countries face enormous challenges in this regard. This publication, the main report of the Forestry Outlook Study for West and Central Asia (FOWECA), provides a long-term perspective of changes in the forest sector. Implemented in partnership with the countries, the study covered 23 countries in West Asia, Central Asia and the southern Caucasus. This report outlines the probable developments, including broader regional and global issues which need to be taken into account in developing national policies and programmes. It then discusses what needs to be done to enhance the contribution of forests and trees to society. It focuses particularly on probable development scenarios, their implications for society in terms of the availability of goods and services, and the priorities and strategies that may be pursued to improve the situation. This analysis will be of particular interest to planners, investors and decision-makers at the regional, subregional and national levels.