Multilateral trade negotiations on agriculture
a resource manual

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Date de parution :
Ouvrage · Broché
ISBN : 9789251044391 EAN : 9789251044391
FAO
T he information in this manual draws on FAO's analytical and field experience in food and agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It also taps FAO's unique expertise in such areas as the assessment of the global food supply and demand situation, the analysis of the impact of the WTO agreements on agricultural commodity markets, and on food security at the world, regional and national levels, the harmonization of international scientifically based and risk-assessed standards for food quality and safety through the Codex Alimentarius Commission (jointly with WHO), phytosanitary standards through the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), and the conservation and utilization of genetic resources for food and agriculture through the Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA), the only UN intergovernmental forum dealing with this subject matter. The manual also takes into account ongoing work of relevance to trade and natural resources management, as well as environmental and ethical concerns, such as the Code of Conduct on Responsible Fisheries, the International Code of Conduct for the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the Codex Code of Ethics for International Trade in Food, and the Draft Code of Conduct on Biotechnology. Although initially developed for government officials and specialists from academic and private sector institutions participating in these workshops, the material in this manual should also be of interest to those who are responsible for implementing the WTO agreements or who will be involved in the new negotiations. Structure of the Resource Manual: In addition to explaining the basic concepts of the WTO agreements that most directly affect agriculture, the Manual provides information that is relevant for better understanding and assessing the implications for national policies of the WTO agreements as well as their possible impact on agricultural economies. Part I presents background information on international trade in agriculture, on the economic rationale for continued trade liberalization, on the previous treatment of agricultural trade by GATT and on the dispute settlement mechanism established by the WTO agreements. Issues related to international trade and the environment are also summarized. Part II covers the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture. The purpose of these modules is twofold: (i) to examine the implementation of the disciplines affecting agriculture from the perspective of developing countries, and (ii) to identify issues of major concern to developing countries in the next round of negotiations. Issues surrounding domestic support measures, export subsidies and market access are discussed, as well as the role of separate and differential treatment, safeguard measures and trade and food security. A separate module in this part covers the rules affecting trade in fish and fish products. Part III covers the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT). The SPS Agreement confirms the right of the WTO to apply measures to protect human, animal and plant life and health. The TBT Agreement recognizes the right of WTO Members to introduce standards to prevent fraud and ensure the safety and environmental compatibility of products imported into their territories, but at the same time lays down certain conditions that Members must meet in implementing these standards and provides guidelines for their formulation. The SPS Agreement, for example, stresses the importance of science-based standards and both agreements strongly encourage the use of international standards where they exist. The modules in this Part describe the rights and obligations of Members under these agreements, outline the work of international standards bodies relevant to trade in plants, animals, fish and food, explain the way in which international standards are formulated, and discuss the implications of the agreements and the work of the international standards bodies for the structure