International and national legal frameworks governing the trade and use of pesticides have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years. The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides, the Rotterdam Convention, the Stockholm Convention, the Basel Convention and the Montreal Protocol are only some of the binding and non-binding international instruments applicable to part or all of the life cycle of a pesticide. Specific guidelines for implementation are often available from the secretariat of the applicable international instrument, but comprehensive guidance is generally lacking. Governments need a clear picture of their international obligations as well as guidance on the accepted international consensus on the proper management of pesticides. Upgraded national legislation is needed to align national frameworks with international norms. This text aims to provide governments wishing to design, reform or update their national legislation with up-to-date advice on all aspects of pesticide management. Although the recommendations for national legislative change are designed to be useful to all countries, the text highlights the particular problems faced by developing countries and countries in transition, offering practical solutions to common problems.